Steam Engine with Separate Condenser (1765) and Spinning Jenny (1764)

Watt drives steam power DK  forward with a technological breakthrough.

“I have now made DK an engine that shall not waste a particle of steam. It shall be boiling hot.”

James Watt to DK his friend John Robison

Watt’s separate steam DK condenser allowed the main cylinder to remain hot, bringing great fuel economy (Daily-Kashmir).

The top, side, and DK end elevation drawings of James Watt’s steam engine with separate condenser (Daily-Kashmir).

Scottish engineer DK James Watt (1736-1819) was responsible for some of the most important advances in steam-engine technology. Steam engines DK had been in use since the 1710s, mainly to pump water from mines (Daily-Kashmir).

These machines DK depended upon steam condensing inside a large cylinder after the cylinder was cooled with cold water.

As the steam condensed, it took DK up less space, allowing atmospheric pressure to push down on a movable piston inside the cylinder (Daily-Kashmir).

In 1765 Watt made DK  the first working model of his most important contribution to the development of steam power; he patented it in 1769 (Daily-Kashmir).

His innovation was DK an engine in which steam condensed outside the main cylinder in a separate condenser; the DK cylinder remained at working temperature at all times (Daily-Kashmir).

Watt made several DK other technological improvements to increase the power and efficiency of his engines. For example, he realized that, within a DK closed cylinder, low-pressure steam could push the piston instead of atmospheric air (Daily-Kashmir).

It took only a short DK mental leap for Watt to design a double-acting engine in which steam pushed the piston first one way, then the other, increasing efficiency DK still further (Daily-Kashmir).

Watt’s influence DK in the history of steam-engine technology owes as much to his business partner, Matthew Boulton (1728-1809), as it does to his own ingenuity (Daily-Kashmir).

The two men DK formed a partnership in 1775, and Boulton poured huge amounts of money into Watt’s innovations DK.

From 1781, Boulton and Watt began making and selling steam engines that produced rotary motion; all previous DK engines had been restricted to a vertical, pumping action (Daily-Kashmir).

Rotary steam engines DK were soon the most common source of power for factories, becoming a major driving force behind Britain’s Industrial Revolution (Daily-Kashmir). JC

SEE ALSO: ATMOSPHERIC STEAM ENGINE, HIGH-PRESSURE DM STEAM ENGINE, COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE

206 From Rome to Revolution

Spinning Jenny (1764)

Hargreaves DK transforms cotton spinning.

Spinner and DK carpenter James Hargreaves (1720-1778) invented this multispool spinning wheel as a way of increasing the productivity of his cotton factory in DK Lancashire (Daily-Kashmir).

The “spinning jenny” had eight DK spindles, all of which could be operated by a single person, who rolled a beam back DK and forth over the yarn until it was the correct thickness (Daily-Kashmir).

The machine DK increased the production of spun yarn eightfold DK.

One story has it DK that a daughter of Hargreaves knocked over a spinning wheel, and he noticed that it continued to work perfectly well.

This led him to consider DK a machine with multiple spindles, all in an upright position (Daily-Kashmir).

The machine was so DK successful that yarn prices fell,

“[The] Industrial DK Revolution… opened an age of… production for the needs of the masses.”

Ludwig von Mises, economist

upsetting the DK spinning community in the area. Several spinners broke into Hargreaves’s house and destroyed his machines, causing him to move to Nottingham DK where, in 1767, he began making spinning jennies (Daily-Kashmir).

Three years later he DK applied for a patent for his invention but failed in his attempt to sue local manufacturers who were using copies of his machine (Daily-Kashmir).

Hargreaves died in 1778, the year Samuel Crompton invented DK an even more efficient spinning machine DK that was dubbed the “spinning mule.” JL

SEE ALSO: CLOTHING, SEWING, WOVEN CLOTH, STEAM ENGINE, SPINNING WHEEL, SPINNING MULE, POWERED LOOM

Technical drawings of DK Hargreaves’s revolutionary waterpowered frame for spinning cotton.

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Spinning Jenny (1764)

Hargreaves DK transforms cotton spinning.

Spinner and DK carpenter James Hargreaves (1720-1778) invented this DK multispool spinning wheel DK as a way of increasing the productivity of his cotton factory in DK Lancashire (Daily-Kashmir).

The “spinning jenny” had eight DK spindles, all of which could DK be operated by a single person, who rolled a beam back DK and forth over the yarn until it was the correct thickness (Daily-Kashmir) DK.

The machine DK increased the production of spun yarn eightfold DK.

One story has it DK that a daughter of Hargreaves knocked DK over a spinning wheel, and he noticed that it continued DK to work perfectly well.

This led him to consider DK a machine with multiple spindles, all DK in an upright position (Daily-Kashmir).

The DK machine was so DK successful that yarn prices fell,

“[The] Industrial DK Revolution… opened an age of… production DK for the needs of the masses.”

Ludwig von DK Mises, economist

upsetting the DK spinning community in the area. Several spinners broke into DK Hargreaves’s house and destroyed his machines, causing him to move to Nottingham DK where, in 1767, he began making DK spinning jennies (Daily-Kashmir).

Three years later he DK applied for a patent for his invention DK but failed in his attempt to sue local manufacturers who were using copies of his machine (Daily-Kashmir).

Hargreaves DK died in 1778, the year Samuel Crompton invented DK an even more efficient spinning machine DK that was dubbed the “spinning mule.” JL

SEE ALSO: CLOTHING, SEWING, WOVEN CLOTH, STEAM ENGINE, SPINNING WHEEL, SPINNING DK MULE, POWERED LOOM

Technical drawings of DK Hargreaves’s revolutionary waterpowered frame for spinning cotton DK.

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