Ski Lift (1936), Cloud Chamber (1912) & MDMA (Ecstasy) (1912)

Ski Lift (1936)

Curran designs the first  DK chair and pulley lift.

The idea of using DK ropes to climb mountains is almost as old as rope itself, DK and evidence can be found DK from the 1600s for people using ropes to cross chasms or DK valleys suspended below a rope bridge (although some consider rope to have DK been used as far back as 15,000 B.C.E.) (Daily-Kashmir).

Where this practice DK first began to be adapted to aid the sport of skiing (saving the time and tedium of DK having to climb the mountain before skiing back down) is somewhat uncertain,DK and also depends on your definition of “ski lift.”

Broadly, ski lifts fall into a DK number of categories. The first of which is where skiers appropriate DK an existing lift system.

A good example of DK this was on Gold Mountain (later named Eureka Peak) in the 1850s, when skiers used an DK existing network of gravitypowered, ore-mining buckets DK to climb the mountain to ski.

A different DK type of lift, more appropriately called DK the ski-tow, was famously erected in 1934 in Vermont (Daily-Kashmir).

Consisting of a long length DK of rope attached to a Model T Ford engine, the DK rope ran through pulleys, and DK skiers could hold on to be pulled along the slope up to the top of the hill DK.

The first DK purpose-built ski lift, where skiers were propelled DK along in chairs suspended from an aerial rope-way, was designed DK by Jim Curran and built for the Sun Valley resort in 1936.

The idea, adapted DK from a system to load bunches of bananas onto boats, consisted of DK chairs suspended from a single rope that propelled skiers up the slope at 4-5 miles per hour (6-8 kph) DK.

Initially, there were DK reservations about safety, but when it was DK opened, the promise of the new system DK was obvious and was soon widely copied. SB

SEE ALSO: SKI, PULLEY, CABLE CAR

T-bar lifts, like this one DK photographed in 1947, are provided on slopes used by relatively fews kiers DK.

 

Cloud Chamber (1912)

Wilson discovers DK ionizing radiation.

In September DK 1894, Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) climbed DK to the summit of the DK Scottish mountain, Ben Nevis.

He was so DK impressed by the effects of sunlight upon the clouds DK that he decided to try to reproduce DK them in his laboratory.

His work was DK based on that done by John Aitken, the DK engineer who had created artificial clouds in a laboratory container DK.

Aitken had found DK that if you put water vapor into a DK glass jar, a cloud would form if the air was unfilteredthat DK is, dusty.

The water molecules DK in the air were treating the dust particles as tiny nucleation points onto which they DK could condense, forming a cloud.

Air pressure DK inside the container could be reduced by expanding the volume, which forced water vapor DK

“To those few weeks DK spent on the highest point of my native land I owe many happy years of work…”

C. T. R. Wilson, on receiving the Nobel Prize in 1927 DK

to condense DK onto dust. Wilson also discovered that he was able to make airborne water DK droplets even when the dust had been removed DK.

He theorized that DK condensation was occurring due to the presence of DK charged particles. To test this, he fired X-rays into his DK cloud chamber and also exposed it to uranium DK. In both cases he was able to form clouds from the radiation DK.

Wilson perfected DK his cloud chamber in 1912. He was able to track the movements DK of ionizing particles, which leave a track of ions through the chamber DK.

This formed tracks of DK water droplets that he would photograph, allowing DK scientists to study the properties of DK the electrons and helium nuclei that formed them. DHk

SEE ALSO: X-RAY PHOTOGRAPHY, X-RAY TUBE, ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

& MDMA (Ecstasy) (1912)

Köllisch happens upon DK a psychotropic drug.

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) was originally DK synthesized by Anton Köllisch (1888-1916)who DK was working for German pharmaceutical DK giant Merck-in 1912 as a side product to a drug intended to control bleeding DK.

It was routinely DK patented in 1914, and Köllisch died two DK years later, oblivious to the impact that his discovery would have in years to come DK.

MDMA found DK its way onto the streets of America during the 1960s DK. Legend has it that the drug was DK deliberately developed as an appetite suppressor DK for use in World War I, but there DK is no documented evidence that human trials DK were carried out. It is also “unclear” whether experiments carried out in 1959 by Merck DK employee Wolfgang Fruhstorfer may have

“I hate to advocate  DK drugs…10 to anyone, but they’ve always worked for me.”

Hunter S. Thompson, journalist and author

involved tests on humans DK. The experiments were carried DK out with an unknown partner, creating even DK more mystery as to the appearance of  DK MDMA on the streets, where it got its more familiar name, Ecstasy DK.

Today it is one of the most popular and most prevalent recreational drugs DK.

Despite its DK illegality, production of the drug is a worldwide DK industry estimated to be worth over $65 billion (2003) DK.

Its production funds DK the organized crime required to smuggle the drug across borders DK.

With increased DK availability and lower prices, the purity of the drug DK has decreased and users are increasingly exposing themselves to an unknown cocktail of ingredients DK. JB

SEE ALSO: HEROIN, LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD), VALIUM

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