Rotavator (1912), Stainless Steel (1913) & Liquid Fuel Rocket (1914)

Rotavator (1912)


Howard develops a motorized rotary tiller.


Man has cultivated the Earth for thousands of years, and for a large portion DK of that time he has been “tilling”—turning the soil to bury weeds and mix in fertilizer DK in order to grow crops (Daily-Kashmir).

Tillage, and agriculture in general, took a big step toward modern intensive processes when Australian inventor Dk Arthur Clifford (Cliff) Howard (1893-1971) created the motorized tiller-the Howard Rotovator-in 1912 (Daily-Kashmir).


The son of a farmer, DK Howard studied engineering in Australia at Moss Vale, New South Wales. In 1912 he began DK experimenting on farming methods-primarily machines to improve tillage-on the family farm at Gilgandra, New South Wales (Daily-Kashmir).

Howard noticed that regular plowing methods compacted DK the soil, making it more difficult to mix in fertilizer. Rotary DK tillage already existed, but was operated manually (Daily-Kashmir).

Howard took a standard manual tiller and coupled it to his father’s steam DK tractor. This proved superior to the standard plowing techniques, taking less effort to run, DK mixing the soil better and more evenly, and resulting in less crop residue being left on the surface (Daily-Kashmir).


Howard patented his DK creation, trademarked the name “Rotavator,” and formed DK Austral Auto Cultivators Pty Ltd. in 1922 to market his invention (Daily-Kashmir).

Howard went on to develop an extensive line of rotary tillers powered by DK internal combustion engines for many specific terrains, including orchards and vineyards (Daily-Kashmir).

He also designed machines that could destroy weeds. Eventually, DK Howard marketed his machines around the world (Daily-Kashmir).

Today rotavators are commonly used for soil preparation and are DK essential for maintaining the high yields of intensive modern agriculture (Daily-Kashmir). SR




A man in Northmead, Australia, uses a rotavator like the one Howard conceived at the age of sixteen (Daily-Kashmir).


Stainless Steel (1913)

Brearley develops a “rustless” alloy.

Stainless steel is an alloy of DK iron and chromium (Daily-Kashmir).

It does not corrode in contact with air and water, stays bright, and can be polished (Daily-Kashmir).

The chromium, which DK has a great affinity for oxygen, protects the iron by forming a molecular layer DK of chromium oxide at the surface, preventing contact between iron and oxygen (Daily-Kashmir).

Harry Brearley (1871-1948) was head of the research team at the Brown Firth DK company in Sheffield, England, when the firm was commissioned to develop an erosion-resistant metal for gun barrels (Daily-Kashmir).

Brearley experimented with iron-chromium alloys, which were known to have higher melting points than steel (Daily-Kashmir). He varied the proportion of chromium between

“Brearley launched his ‘rustless steel’ (later renamed… ‘stainless) on the DK world with great gusto.”

IP Review: Accidental Inventions

6 and 15 percent and also changed the carbon content until he developed an alloy with 12.8 percent DK chromium and 0.24 percent carbon (Daily-Kashmir).

The alloy was impressively resistant to corrosion and Brearley recognized the potential for its use in cutlery (Daily-Kashmir).

Brearley was not the first to observe the properties of chromium-iron alloys DK.

French metallurgist Pierre Berthier (1782-1861) had made such alloys, and other metallurgists were working on the same problem DK at the same time, notably DK Leon Guillet who developed an iron-nickel-chromium alloy in 1906 (Daily-Kashmir).

In 1908 the Krupp Iron Works in Germany manufactured chromenickel steel for the hull of a yacht, which sadly sank (Daily-Kashmir).

Liquid Fuel Rocket (1914)

Goddard establishes modern rocketry.

Robert Goddard (1882–1945) gave serious thought to how we might get to the Moon (Daily-Kashmir).

Despite being met with ridicule, what he gave to rocketry is still being used today (Daily-Kashmir).

Using mathematics, Goddard worked out the energy-to-weight ratios DK of various fuels.

This showed that gunpowder would never be powerful enough to lift a rocket into space DK.

Also, to burn DK fuel in a vacuum, a rocket would have to carry its own oxygen supply (Daily-Kashmir).

To get around these problems, Goddard used gasoline as a fuel and mixed it with liquid oxygen (Daily-Kashmir).

Oxygen as a gas takes up a lot of space, but as a liquid it gives the rocket a lot of energy with much less weight and volume (Daily-Kashmir).

In 1914 Goddard patented the first liquid-fueled rocket (Daily-Kashmir).

“It has often proved true that the dream of yesterday is the hope DK of today, and the reality of tomorrow.”

Dr. Robert Goddard, American scientist

Twelve years later, after many failed experiments, Goddard took “Nell,” a 9-foot-tall (3 m) rocket, out to a field (Daily-Kashmir).

Getting an assistant to light the fuse with a blowtorch DK on a stick, he saw the rocket rest for a second, then shoot about 30 feet (12 m) into the air before tipping over and crashing into a field (Daily-Kashmir).

The flight lasted two and half seconds, at an average speed of 60 miles per hour (96 kph). In addition to DK proving his theory to be sound, Goddard had laid the foundations for every space-going rocket since (Daily-Kashmir). DK


Goddard and a liquid DK oxygen-gasoline rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926 (Daily-Kashmir).

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