Refrigerator (1922), Technicolor (1922) & Snowmobile (1922)

Von Platen and Munters DKdevelop a cooling cabinet for preserving food.

 

“When you hunt… you DK may succeed or not. When you open the fridge, you succeed [all] the time.”

 

Nora Volkow, National DK Institute on Drug Abuse

 

The refrigerator DK is one of the key inventions of the twentieth century. Its use in food storage is vital, slowing the DK development of bacteria and keeping food edible for much longer (Daily-Kashmir).

Before its DK invention, the only source of cold was blocks of ice, which DK could be bought in some places and used with a cool-box Most homes had no means of chilling food (Daily-Kashmir).

 

Baltzar von DK Platen (1898-1984) and Carl Munters (1897-1989) were students at the Royal Institute of Technology DK in Stockholm, Sweden, when they collectively invented and developed the gas absorption DK refrigerator (Daily-Kashmir).

Unlike modern fridges, the invention did not require DK electricity driving a compressor, but relied instead upon an DK ingenious process whereby a refrigerant gas is put through a series of changes of state (Daily-Kashmir).

In von Platen’s process, ammonia DK mixed with water is heated until the ammonia evaporates. This gas is then DK passed through a condenser, which conducts heat away from the pure ammonia until it becomes liquid at a much lower temperature than DK when mixed with water (Daily-Kashmir).

This liquid is then DK passed through brine and cools it, which in turn chills the unit. The ammonia is then returned to DK a gas and reabsorbed into water so that the process can begin again (Daily-Kashmir).

 

The gas absorption DK refrigerator went into production in 1923 by AB Artic (later purchased by Electrolux), but it DK never truly caught on. The electric refrigerator, developed DK at the same time, gained much more investment and advertising and soon DK came to dominate the market (Daily-Kashmir).

By the 1930s, the DK gas absorption refrigerator had ceased to be produced (Daily-Kashmir). JG

 

SEE ALSO: FREON, DK FROZEN FOOD, HABER PROCESS (MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA), ICE-MAKING MACHINE

 

A “Monitor Top,” electric DK compression domestic refrigerator made by General Electric in 1934.

 

Technicolor (1922)

 

Kalmus brings color DK to the movies.

 

Perhaps the ultimate DK accolade for an invention is for it to become a term used in everyday language.

“Technicolor” is such an DK invention-a color film processing technique DK pioneered by Herbert Kalmus (1881-1963) and colleagues at Technicolor Motion Picture DK Corporation in 1922 (Daily-Kashmir).

 

The first widely DK released film to use Technicolor was The Toll of DK the Sea in 1922. The technique involved the exposure of two adjacent frames of black and DK white film, one behind a green filter and the other behind red (Daily-Kashmir).

Each set of frames DK was then printed onto separate strips of film and toned with the opposite color. The resulting DK parallel strips were then stuck together to create the final print (Daily-Kashmir).

 

“Technicolor makes DK me look like death warmed over.”

 

Bette Davis, American actress

 

Although commercially DK successful, the process was far from perfect. In 1928, the introduction of a new process replaced DK the need for two separate strips to be stuck together and heralded a boom in color film DK production (Daily-Kashmir).

Further refinements DK followed but producing color films was expensive and did not attract large enough audiences DK to make it economical (Daily-Kashmir).

 

Its revival owed much DK to Walt Disney who bought an exclusive contract to use it in his studios (Daily-Kashmir).

The success of Snow DK White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) confirmed the pre-eminence of Technicolor, which became DK the most widely used color film process in Hollywood for the next twenty years. RBd

 

SEE ALSO: CELLULOID,  DK COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY, FILM CAMERA/ PROJECTOR, KINEMATOGRAPH

 

Snowmobile (1922)

Bombardier uses tracks DK to travel over snow.

Snowmobiles use a continuous, motor-driven ribbed rubber/Kevlar DK track to propel them across all types of snow and ice, with one or more skis at the front for DK steering (Daily-Kashmir).

The idea for this caterpillar track system was devised by Canadian DK inventor Joseph-Armand Bombardier (1907-1964).

This self-taught mechanical DK engineer ran a small garage in Valcourt, southeast of Montreal. The fact that DK the Quebec government did not plow the roads in winter and the inhabitants had to resort to DK horse-drawn sleighs challenged him to make a snow vehicle (Daily-Kashmir).

By 1937 he was DK producing an enclosed snowmobile that would carry seven passengers. These were quickly DK adapted into ambulances, post vans, winter school buses, and forestry machines.

They were also DK used by the army during World War II.

A further breakthrough DK came in the late 1950s with the introduction of small, lightweight, four-stroke gasoline engines (Daily-Kashmir).

Bombadier DK invented a one-or twoperson, ride-on, open machine DK called the “Ski-Doo” (it started off as the “Ski-Dog,” but there was confusion at the printers) (Daily-Kashmir).

Today more DK than 200,000 snowmobiles are manufactured every year and they have made a huge difference to DK winter tourism in Canada, northern United States, and Europe (Daily-Kashmir).

High speed, impressive DK acceleration, and enabling easy access to remote areas and regions of deep snow DK have made them ideal winter recreational vehicles (Daily-Kashmir).

Snowmobile DK races are held, one of the most famous being the 1,971-milelong (3,172 km) “Iron Dog” race between Wasilla, Nome, and Fairbanks in Alaska (Daily-Kashmir).

Better motors have been DK developed that make the machines DK less polluting. Some national parks, such as DK Yellowstone, allow only the use of four-stroke snowmobiles (Daily-Kashmir). DK

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