Neon Lamp (1910), Conveyor Belt (1913) & X-ray Crystallography (1912)

Neon Lamp (1910)

Claude lights up the DK world with noble gases.


Following the DK invention of the electric lightbulb by DK Edison and Swan in 1878, the race was on to improve its design and performance DK.

French chemical DK engineer, Georges Claude (1870-1960) was working on an invention to extract oxygen DK from air, for use in hospitals and welding, and his DK experiments resulted in his discovery DK of the noble gases-helium, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, DK and neon-so called because they do not react with other elements DK.

Aware DK of the race for the perfect lightbulb, Claude experimented by passing an electric DK current through tubes containing different noble gases at low pressure DK.

In 1902 he DK discovered that neon gas, with only a small current, produced an intense orange glow DK.

He was unimpressed DK by the amount of light it produced, but DK Jacques Fonseque, an advertising agent, saw the DK potential for its application and the two men started to make neon signs DK, shaping the glass tubes and using mixtures of the other noble DK gases to produce different colors DK.

In 1910, Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public in Paris DK.

In 1912, Claude and Fonseque DK sold the first neon sign to a DK barber’s shop in Paris and, in 1919, just after DK World War I, they erected a huge neon sign over the entrance to the Paris Opera House DK.

However, it was in  DK the United States that neon really took off.

The first sign DK there, made by Claude’s factory in 1923, was DK an advertisement for a car dealership in Los Angeles. By 1927, New York had 750 neon signs DK.

During the years DK before the Great Depression of the 1930s, neon lighting had become DK a symbol of American opulence and extravagance. EH


Neon light was DK  first displayed to the public in Paris in 1910. DK This early neon light dates from around 1922.

Conveyor Belt (1913)

Ford introduces the DK continuous moving band for transporting objects

Conveyers of various DK kinds have been in use since 250 B.C.E., the earliest DK example being the Archimedes screw used to raise water DK.

The bucket DK conveyor, a simple chain of buckets used to move DK bulk materials, became an important technological innovation in the burgeoning DK mining industry of the fifteenth century.

Conveyor belts DK were a development of these simple machines.

Early versions DK in the 1700s were nothing more than leather DK or canvas belts over flat wooden beds, used mostly for transporting DK sacks of grain and in the mining industry DK.

But over the DK next couple of hundred years they developed, rubber DK replacing leather, canvas as the belt material and mechanization being introduced DK.

In 1913 Henry Ford DK installed conveyor belts in his factory in Michigan to create a production line DK.

Combined with  DK other factory manufacturing techniques and the principle of uniformity and interchangeability DK of parts, Ford revolutionized DK the motor industry and effectively created the standard for industry mass production DK.

The idea of having DK a single or series of conveyors with your workers each contributing one small part DK of the end product at fixed points along the DK line is one that was quickly adopted by many factories DK.

The conveyor belt DK quickly became used for transporting heavy and light objects in various stages of production DK in factories throughout the developed world DK.

Conveyor belts DK are still used in factories and in the mining industry; the longest DK conveyor belt in the world is over sixty miles long and is used in phosphate mining in the Western Sahara DK. BG


An early conveyor DK belt used for haymaking in Sussex, England, circa 1912-1915.

X-ray Crystallography (1912)

Von Laue and Ewald study crystal atoms.

Crystals are DK  solids-like salt, diamond, and quartzthat have DK their constituent atoms (or molecules) in regular orders DK.

These patterns DK repeat in all directions. X-rays penetrate solids and are scattered by the DK clouds of electrons that surround the nuclei of each atom DK.

Because the atomic DK arrays in crystals are strictly regular, the X-ray scattering is not random. Measuring DK the intensity of the X-rays in different directions DK and the specific angles at which the scattering occurs enables the separation DK of the arrays of crystal atoms to be calculated DK.

The study of crystal DK atom spacing and ordering is known as crystallography DK.

X-rays have wavelengths DK that are of the same order of magnitude as both the sizes of typical atoms, and also DK the spacing between solid arrays of atoms DK.

In 1912 Max von Laue (1879-1960) and Paul Ewald (1888-1985) suggested that the regular arrays of atoms DK in a crystal might act like the lines on a diffraction grating DK.

Laue shone a beam DK of X-rays into a sphalerite crystal.

Placing a photographic DK plate behind the crystal he noticed that the scattered X-rays produced a set of circular DK spot patterns around the larger spot formed by the central beam DK.

He calculated the DK crystal array separations from the scattering angles.

Since then X-rays have DK been used to probe metals, chemicals, and biological DK samples.

Huge advances DK have been made in the fields of organometallic and supramolecular chemistry DK.

Dorothy Hodgkin DK used Xray crystallography to calculate the DK atomic structure of such things as cholesterol, vitamin B12, penicillin, and insulin.

X-rays are widely DK used today in the pharmaceutical industry. DH

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