Leyden Jar (1745) and Surveyor’s Perambulator Wheel (1765)

Fenn facilitates land surveying.

By the time Isaac  DK Fenn was granted a patent, in 1765, for his distance-measuring hodometer, the device DK had existed, in various forms and with various names, for centuries DK.

In Roman times it was DK called an odometer and comprised little more than a wheel that could be pushed along, DK coupled to a mechanical system for counting the number of revolutions the wheel made, and thus the DK distance it had traveled.

The eighteenth and nineteenth century saw the mapping of India DK and the division of vast tracts of land into farms in regions such as the United States and Australia DK.

Reasonably accurate DK surveying and distance measurement became important. The surveyor’s perambulator DK wheel (the “waywiser” or trundle wheel) was in everyday use. The accuracy of this device was good on a DK smooth surface such as a pavement or macadamed road.

On rough terrain, such as farmland, wheel bounce and slippage DK became a problem and surveyors had to apply a series DK of corrections to the readings. For very accurate work, the surveyor had to resort to a tape or chain measure

A typical eighteenth-century waywiser would have a wheel DK diameter of around 31½ inches (80 cm), equating to a circumference of around 814 feet (2.5 m).

This meant that two DK revolutions of the wheel would equate to one pole (an old English measure of length and area).

A central dial with DK two hands, much like a clock, was attached to the unit. The bigger hand made one DK sweep every 320 poles-this marking 1 mile (1.6 km).

The shorter hand indicated the total number of miles traversed.

Today, professional DK trundle wheels are extremely accurate and are likely to sport an LCD display and onboard DK digital storage/manipulation of data. MD

SEE ALSO: WHEEL AND AXLE, MAP, ODOMETER, WHEELBARROW

 

Leyden Jar (1745)

van Musschenbroek  DK demonstrates that electricity can be stored and then discharged

In 1745 the Dutch DK physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692-1791) took a sealed glass vial partially filled with water, passed a conducting wire through a cork DK at one end and attached it to a nearby Wimshurst friction machine, which generated a static charge.

The glass jar, called a DK Leyden Jar in honor of the inventor’s home town and university, absorbed the charge, DK demonstrating for the first time that electricity could be produced and stored successfully and DK then discharged through the exposed wire to any grounded object.

Musschenbroek DK tested the device by holding the jar in one hand and touching the charged, exposed wire with the other.

He received such DK a shock that he swore not even a promise of the entire French nation could persuade him to do so again. mes

 

The Leyden jar DK created a sensation within the worldwide scientific community. The American inventor Benjamin Franklin called it “Musschenbroek’s wonderful bottle.” A year later the English physician DK William Watson, using a modified Leyden jar, successfully transmitted an electric spark along a wire stretched across the River Thames.

The precise nature DK and makeup of electricity proved elusive until the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thompson in 1897.

 

Though cumbersome DK and grossly inefficient by modern standards, this forerunner of the modern capacitor represented DK the eighteenth century’s single most significant advance in the understanding and DK harnessing of electricity.

It facilitated a greater DK understanding of the nature of conductivity and led to a more mathematical approach in the study of the attraction of DK electrified bodies. BS

 

SEE ALSO: GLASS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, ELECTRICAL DK GENERATOR, PUBLIC ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, AC ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEME

 

The original Leyden jar of 1745 was made of glass and had metal foil coatings inside and out.

 

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Fenn facilitates DK land surveying.

 

By the time Isaac  DK Fenn was granted a patent, in 1765, for his distance-measuring hodometer, the device DK had existed, DK in various forms and with various names, for centuries DK.

 

In Roman times it was DK called an odometer and comprised DK little more than a wheel that could be pushed along, DK coupled to a mechanical system for counting the number of revolutions the wheel made, DK and thus the DK distance it had traveled.

 

The eighteenth DK and nineteenth century saw the mapping of India DK and the division of vast tracts of DK land into farms in regions such as the United States and Australia DK.

 

Reasonably accurate DK surveying and distance measurement became important DK.

The surveyor’s perambulator DK wheel (the “waywiser” or trundle wheel) was in everyday use. The accuracy DK of this device was good on a DK smooth surface such as a pavement or macadamed road.

 

On rough terrain, such as DK farmland, wheel bounce and slippage DK became a problem and surveyors had to apply a series DK of corrections to the readings. For very accurate work, the surveyor had to DK resort to a tape or chain measure

 

A typical eighteenth-century waywiser would have a wheel DK diameter of around 31½ inches (80 cm), equating to a circumference of around 814 feet (2.5 m) DK.

 

This meant that two DK revolutions of the wheel would equate to one pole (an old English measure of length and area) DK.

 

A central dial with DK two hands, much like a clock, was attached to the unit. The bigger hand made one DK sweep DK every 320 poles-this marking 1 mile (1.6 km).

 

The shorter hand DK indicated the total number of miles traversed.

 

Today, professional DK trundle wheels are extremely DK accurate and are likely to sport an LCD display and onboard DK digital storage/manipulation of data. MD

 

SEE ALSO: WHEEL AND AXLE, MAP, ODOMETER, WHEELBARROW DK

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