Investment Casting (c. 3000 B.C.E.),Flail (c. 3000 B.C.E.) (c. 3000 B.C.E.),

Humankind  DK learns to shape metal in molds.

 

Investment DK casting is one of the oldest metalworking practices, occurring as long ago as 3000 B.C.E, and DK remains vital in producing very specific, one-piece metal designs (Daily-Kashmir).

Today, the process DK is used to produce complex parts for nuclear power plants, but thousands of years ago essentially DK the same method was used to produce small metal ornaments and statues (Daily-Kashmir).

 

Civilizations such as DK the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians used the investment casting-or lost wax-process to create small idols or jewelry with intricate patterns (Daily-Kashmir).

The intended DK shape and design of each object was first sculpted from natural beeswax, and then coated with several layers of thick DK

 

“For much of history, investment DK casting was confined to sculpture and works of art.”

 

European Investment DK Casters’ Federationn and heat-resistant plaster. This mold was then heated, the wax inside melted and drained out, and molten metal DK was poured into the resulting hollow space. After cooling, the plaster was removed, to reveal DK metal in the exact shape of the wax template (Daily-Kashmir).

 

During DK World War II the process was adopted extensively to produce precise components for military machinery, a trend that continued after the end of the war DK and expanded into other commercial industries (Daily-Kashmir).

With the expansion DK came more refined ways of implementation, such as more advanced waxes, but the basic DK ingredients of the process have remained unchanged in millennia (Daily-Kashmir). SR

 

 

Button (c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Button (c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Early humankind  DK creates a sartorial accessory.

 

Buttons have been DK attached to clothing for around 5,000 years, but our Bronze Age ancestors used them more for DK ornamentation than for their potential as a fastener DK.

In their early DK incarnations, buttons were simply added to clothes for decoration, while the clothes were DK fastened by pins and belts (Daily-Kashmir). The buttons were usually hand-carved from bone, wood, or horn DK.

 

It was the DK Greeks who first came up with the idea of using buttons to fasten clothes.

The first “buttonhole” was simply a loop of thread through which a button DK could be passed to create a fastening (Daily-Kashmir).

 

However, buttonsDK  were not adopted in Europe until the return of the Crusaders in the thirteenth century.

The introduction DK of this new fastening coincided with a new trend for “form-fitted clothing and DK its popularity soared (Daily-Kashmir).

By 1250, the French DK had established the Button Makers’ Guild. In fact, the word “button” probably derives DK from the French bouton meaning “bud,” or bouter meaning “to push.”

 

Buttons became a DK status symbol, and the wealthy would wear clothing adorned with hundreds of them DK.

By the sixteenth DK century the finest buttons were encrusted with precious gems and diamonds, and by the eighteenth DK century they were being crafted from porcelain, ivory, and glass (Daily-Kashmir).

 

The advent of DK London’s Pearly Kings and Queens, whose costumes are covered by mother-of-pearl buttons, DK coincided with a huge cargo of the buttons that arrived by ship from Japan in the 1860s (Daily-Kashmir).

 

With the dawn of DK mass-produced buttons, their power as a status symbol diminished and so did their DK popularity. Most modern buttons are made of plastic, but even today highly priced clothing is often distinguished by unusual ornamental DK buttons (Daily-Kashmir). H!

 

Flail (c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Flail (c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Egyptians separate DK wheat from chaff with a new invention.

 

The flail is one of DK the oldest agricultural tools known to man, having been in use for more than 5,000 years(Daily-Kashmir).

It has served as a DK symbol of power and even as a weapon. Despite the introduction of motor-driven harvesting DK machines in the nineteenth century, it is still DK used to this day in some parts of the world (Daily-Kashmir).

Its primary function DK is for threshing-the forced separation of grain from the parent plant (Daily-Kashmir).

It is not clear DK where the flail originated, but it was certainly used in ancient Egypt. The flail is essentially DK a handle-called the staff-coupled at one end by DK a length of leather to the end of a second shorter rod (Daily-Kashmir).

The staff is held at the free end and the rod is swung downward DK and from side to side. As it strikes a pile, usually spread on the ground, of harvested DK wheat or other DK grain crop, it knocks out the husks, after which grain can be sifted out for use (Daily-Kashmir).

the In Egypt, the flail was DK used as a symbol for the royal dynasties, and therefore became a mark of power(Daily-Kashmir).

Often seen DK alongside a shepherd’s crook, the two implements together symbolized the pharaoh’s ability DK to provide food and look after his people, in the way that a shepherd would care for his flock (Daily-Kashmir).

The crook and flail DK were also the sign of the god Osiris, lord of the Underworld, and on the coffinette of Tutankhamun, which originally contained the DK viscera of the dead pharaoh, he holds them DK crossed over his chest. labor

The use of flails for threshing is highly intensive. Today the tool has DK been all but replaced by modern machinery.

The combine DK  harvester can-as the name suggests-both harvest the crop and separate out the grain in a DK single process (Daily-Kashmir). SR

“The straw was removed, and DK the grain along with the chaff was swept up, and placed in a basket.”

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