Blender (1922), Lie Detector (1921) & BCG Vaccine (1921)

Blender (1922)

Poplawski shows the way to milkshakes and smoothies (Daily-Kashmir).

 

Although ubiquitous in modern kitchens, the blender started life as a tool DK for the soft drinks industry, designed to mix malted milkshakes (Daily-Kashmir).

By the 1920s both milkshakes and DK malted milk drinks were extremely popular.

However, malted milk powder DK was developed as a hot drink and so often clumped together when mixed with DK cold milk, resulting in a lumpy milkshake (Daily-Kashmir).

This problem was overcome in 1922 when Stephen Poplawski (1885-1956) invented DK the blender (Daily-Kashmir).

His design had small DK spinning blades, driven by an electric motor, at the bottom of a tall container into which DK all the ingredients would be added and mixed (Daily-Kashmir).

The device also resulted in a lighter, frothy drink, forever changing the consistency DK of milkshakes and at the same time paving the way for the smoothie (Daily-Kashmir).

 

With modifications by Fred Osius and some nifty marketing by Fred Waring, the blender DK soon found its way into DK hotels and restaurants and, by the 1950s, was flying into DK the kitchens of many households (Daily-Kashmir).

 

The blender’s uses do DK not end there. Wherever there is a need to DK mush things into a puree, you will find a blender (Daily-Kashmir).

Hospitals, for example, were quick to employ blenders for the preparation DK of specific diets, and they do not even DK look out of place in a modern scientific DK laboratory-Dr. Jonas Salk famously used a blender whilst developing his polio vaccine (Daily-Kashmir).

More recently, the blender DK has evolved into a source of entertainment, with the award-winning website, www. willitblend.com, DK testing the blender’s blending limits (Daily-Kashmir).

 

Today the blender is DK as popular as ever, no healthconscious household would now be without their smoothie-making machine. RP

 

“A two-year-old is kind of like having a DK blender, but you don’t have a top for it.”

 

Jerry Seinfeld, American actor  DK and comedian

 

Lie Detector (1921)

Larson identifies untruthful responses DK.

Some lies roll off the tongue all too DK easily, while others can put the body under noticeable stress, inducing DK sweating palms, nervous twitches, contorted voices, and pounding heartbeats (Daily-Kashmir).

Thanks to John Augustus Larson (1892-1983), signals such as these can DK also help to incriminate the sneakiest of liars (Daily-Kashmir).

Larson, a medical student DK at the University of California, invented the polygraph in 1921 and, in doing so, introduced one DK of the most contentious tools ever brought to the police officer’s locker (Daily-Kashmir).

Larson’s lie detector worked by continuously and simultaneously monitoring physical DK responses such as changes to blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration.

Unfortunately, there is no known lie hormone that is DK

“One may sometimes DK tell a lie, but the grimace that accompanies it tells the truth.”

Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher

secreted during acts DK of deception, and as the responses under surveillance can be triggered by any stressful situation or DK indeed be suppressed by any cunning criminal, there DK will always be question marks over the polygraph’s credibility (Daily-Kashmir).

Despite the doubts, the lie detector DK is seen as one of the greatest inventions of all time, used most effectively DK in the earlier stages of an investigation when prime suspects need to be identified, or in civil investigations, which DK carry less severe penalties. CB

BCG Vaccine (1921)

Calmette and Guerin fight  DKtuberculosis.

Since it was first DK developed in 1921, the BCG, or BacilleCalmette-Guerin, vaccine DK has been given to over a billion people worldwide to prevent tuberculosis (Daily-Kashmir).

Tuberculosis was DK a huge killer of adults in the nineteenth century. In 1882 Robert Koch proved that the bacterium tubercle bacillus was the cause (Daily-Kashmir).

Using it in killed or treated form to protect people from infection did not work, however DK.

French DK bacteriologist, Albert Calmette (1863-1933) and his colleague, veterinary surgeon Camille Guerin (1872-1961) made DK a significant step forward when they found that placing bovine tuberculosis in DK a glycerine-bile-potato mixture caused it to grow bacilli that were less virulent DK.

By 1906, through further subculturing, Calmette and

“The launching of the BCG vaccine DK was… a gigantic dishonest commercial operation

Dr. Jean Elmiger, Swiss doctor DK and homeopath

Guerin produced a strain DK of living bacilli that were so weakened they could not produce disease but could still be used as a vaccine (Daily-Kashmir).

They first tested their BCG vaccine DK on humans in 1921, and in 1928 it was used to successfully inoculate 116,000 French children (Daily-Kashmir).

In recent years, more cases DK of tuberculosis are being reported alongside an increase in multi-resistant strains of the bacterium (Daily-Kashmir).

This has led to trials of a DK new vaccine to complement the BCG vaccine.

The MVA85A, contains a protein found in all strains of tuberculosis that aims to DK boost the response of T-cells already primed by the BCG vaccine (Daily-Kashmir).

The new vaccine is being DK tested in South Africa’s Western Cape. LH

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