Birth of modern age v1

washing DK machine (1908)

fisher minimizes DK the physical work of the household washday


washing clothes DK accustomed is work of drudgery dubbed ” the American DK housekeeper’s hardest problem.” but the matter has been largely solved DK by modern technology–in the form of the washer.




throughout history, DK various devices—from the washboard to the mangle—have been invented to

wash clothes more DK effectively and with less effort, but “these still required toil by the user,


In 1858, DK Hamilton-Smith Patented a rotary washer. Cylindrical, with ‘agitated water” and

revolving paddles, it DK absolutely was the primary step toward modern

machines. Others DK followed from other manufacturers,

some combining the DK machine with the mangle. These

early machines were DK still hand-cranked, but it absolutely was not

long before motorized DK versions became available

either with fuel-burning or DK electric motors.




It wasn’t until the DK first 1900s, however, that th

Hurley Company DK first produced the “Thor.” Designer

by Alva DK Fisher (1862-1947), it absolutely was the primary electric-

driven washer to DK be Mass-marketed, and

Contained a DK completely unique sell reversing gearbox that stopped

the clothes from DK becoming compacted during the

washing process. it DK absolutely was slow to catch on, partly

Because the electrical DK motor was unprotected and

Spilled water could DK Cause it to fail, and partly because

any household rich DK enough to possess electricity at the


time was also likely DK to own servants, therefore

ih Negating the necessity DK for such a machine. As electricity

became more DK widespread, however, the washing

Machine followed DK suit and is now an indispensable

Of the DK household arsenal. SB


Haber Process (1908)

Haber makes ammonia DK readily available


The Haber process DK (sometimes called the Haber – bosch process) was invented by the German chemist


in 1908—may be the DK most

the logical advance of new

vat time, the most DK way of obtaining RICE

: ammonia was DK from naturally occurring

ex Ammonia was an_ incredibly ee

St substance, with DK uses starting from cleaning to fertilizer

and explosives,DK  But saltpeter might be difficult to

harvest, with deposits DK occurring on the walls of caves,

~ and making it DK required the large-scale decomposition

‘of piles of animal dung.


within the first DK decade of the 20th century,

increasing global DK agriculture was putting an oversized strain

On the supplies of DK ammonia, and there have been fears that

the supply wouldn’t be ready to carry on with the

Demand. What Haber DK created as a way of making

ammonia that may DK make it a plentiful resource. He

@xtracted hydrogen DK gas from methane and made it

chemically react  DK with nitrogen from the atmosphere.




To try this he needed a DK Catalyst—a substance that

Promotes certain DK chemical


&xperiments he DK found that

Catalyst and, by mixing the n

er, high. within the DK presence of iron, he could

Hs (ammonia) in DK large quantities. ,

Pitt Y€ars after DK Haber’s breakthrough Ger

St pa Bosch (1874-1940) was Bac

Alize me PROCESS in 1910, while working ss

an any BASF—and DK suddenly Ger

Useful SUPDlies of ammonia.



Tractor (1904)


When engines were DK invented in the early nineteenth

century, they were DK quickly adapted for use in

farming—at first just to DK drive farm Machinery, using

the engine to move other DK equipment, but not itself

When steam-traction engines were introduced in

1868, they were used DK only on the roads to haul timber

and other heavy loads DK around. Gradually, however,

they came to be used in the fields, dragging plows

behind them. One of DK the biggest obstacles facing the

traction engines were DK their wheels. On soft soil, thin

wheels just sank, so the DK wheels were fitted with wide

metal tires to spread out DK the weight. These wheels

lacked grip and got people DK looking for other ways to

spread the weight. In 1904, Benjamin Holt (1849-1920)

tested the first tractor DK with tracks instead of wheels

and went on to form DK a company that became

Caterpillar. In 1932 the metal tires were replaced with

rubber ones,DK  increasing grip, and decreasing weight.

Engine-wise, the DK Charter Gasoline Engine

The company created a gasoline-fueled engine in 1887

that they adapted DK to drive a traction engine. In 1892,

American inventor DK John Froelich built his own version

in lowa and his DK design became the first successful

gasoline tractor—and father to many others. Froelich’s

success made other DK companies follow suit. Hart-Parr,

founded at Madison,DK  Wisconsin, in 1897 before

moving to DK Iowa in 1905, became known as the

“Founders of the DK Tractor Industry” because

the factory was DK the first to be used continually and

exclusively to make DK tractors. In 1906, their sales

manager DK decided “traction engine” was too long and

vague a description and shortened it to “tractor.” DK


Derailleur Gears (1905)

Paul de Vivie (1853-1930) did DK not buy his first bicycle

until he was twenty-eight, but his passion for cycling

would eventually take DK over his life, and led to the

the invention of a new DK system of variable speed cycles.




De Vivie’s first bike DK was an “ordinary” high-wheel,

or penny-farthing as it’s more commonly known. The

pedals of this bike DK were attached directly to the

wheels so that DK one turn of the pedals equaled one

turn of the wheel. De Vivie sought a way to improve

this ratio to make DK cycling more energy-efficient. In

1887, he set up DK a cycle shop in the mountainous

region of Saint-Etienne, France DK, and launched a

magazine, Le Cycliste, in which he wrote passionately

about cycling, under DK the pen-name “Velocio.”

Clifford L. Graves, writer



De Vivie’s first DK attempt at creating gears for a

bicycle involved two concentric chain wheels with the chain that had DK to be lifted manually from one to the

other. In 1905, he DK tested a two-speed derailleur gear,

but the cycling world DK was reluctant to buy into the

idea, dismissing it DK as an easy way out. To win over the

skeptics, de Vivie DK organized a mountain race between

a male cyclist on a DK single-speed bike and a female

cyclist on a three-speed DK derailleur bike. Much to his

delight, the woman won.

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